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Nie ma, nie ma wody w rzece
środa 2009-04-29

Jedna trzecia największych rzek świata wysycha. Do oceanów wpada mniej wody niż w połowie ubiegłego stulecia. Winę za to ponosi ocieplenie, ale i lekkomyślność ludzi.

Jangcy opadła do najniższego poziomu od 100 lat. Miasto Wuhan w 2008 roku leżało nad kałużą.
Sami sobie zgotowaliśmy ten los. Raport sporządzony przez organizację WWF w 2007 r. za spadek poziomu rzek wini głównie ludzi. Aż 70 proc. zużywanej wody pochłania rolnictwo. Z dna wydobywa się piasek i żwir, co zaburza przepływ rzek. Buduje się porty rzeczne i tamy, które zakłócają nurt i zanieczyszczają wodę. Tylko 12 proc. ze 177 najdłuższych rzek dopływa do morza bez takich przeszkód.

Do Pacyfiku wpada o 6 proc. mniej wody niż przed półwieczem, zasoby Oceanu Indyjskiego uszczupliły się o 3 proc. Ubytki odnotowano w aż 30 proc. dużych rzek, m.in. takich gigantach jak Żółta Rzeka w Chinach, Ganges w Indiach, Kolorado w USA czy Niger w Afryce. Na ich brzegach mieszkają miliony ludzi.

W nadchodzących dziesięcioleciach możemy się spodziewać jeszcze większego uszczuplenia zasobów wody zdatnej do picia – mówi dr Aiguo Dai z National Center for Atmospheric Research w USA, autor badań, które zostaną w maju opublikowane w piśmie "American Meteorological Society's Journal of Climate".

Naukowiec zmierzył zmiany poziomu w 925 rzekach na przestrzeni 56 lat – od 1948 do 2004 roku. Okazało się, że wysychanie rzek nie dotknęło demokratycznie całego globu. Najbardziej ucierpiał Pacyfik, do którego wpada obecnie o 526 km sześc. mniej wody, czyli 6 proc. rzecznych zasobów. Badacze obliczyli, że podobną ilość wody w ciągu roku toczy Missisipi, jedna z czterech najdłuższych rzek świata. Z kolei Ocean Indyjski uszczuplił się o 140 km sześc., co stanowi 3 proc. wpadających do niego słodkich wód. Naukowcy sugerują, że takie ubytki mogą znacząco wpłynąć na cyrkulację oceaniczną, która jest zależna od temperatury i zasolenia wód.

Dla odmiany, do Oceanu Arktycznego wpada o 10 proc. więcej wody (460 km sześc.) niż przed 50 laty. Powód? Przyspieszone topnienie lodowców. Z kolei zasoby Atlantyku pozostały w zasadzie niezmienione: ubyło wody w Amazonce, ale zostało to zrównoważone wezbraniem Missisipi i południowoamerykańskiej Parany.

W najbliższych dekadach w związku ze zmianą klimatu źródeł świeżej wody ubędzie, zwłaszcza na gęsto zaludnionych obszarach w średnich i małych szerokościach geograficznych – mówi dr Dai. – Szybkie znikanie lodowców górskich w Tybecie i innych regionach jeszcze pogorszy sprawę.

Rejony znaczących ubytków słodkiej wody są jednymi z najgęściej zaludnionych na Ziemi. Wystarczy wymienić podnóże Himalajów czy Chiny. Nad samym Gangesem żyje aż 300 mln ludzi. Z kolei jedyny obszar, który odnotował zwiększony przepływ słodkiej wody – Arktyka – jest słabo zamieszkany.

Rozchwianie naszego klimatu wyraźnie odbija się na bardzo nierównomiernych wahaniach poziomu wody w rzekach. Na przykład Missisipi wezbrała o 22 proc. z powodu zwiększonych opadów wywołanych zjawiskiem El Nino, które jednocześnie osłabiło nurt Amazonki. Z powodu niedostatku deszczu cierpi również południowoamerykańska rzeka Columbia, której nurt zmniejszył się o 14 proc. Afrykański Niger ucierpiał w wyniku wielkiej suszy w latach 70. i 80. ubiegłego wieku.

Badacze podkreślają, że przyczyn spadku poziomu rzek należy również upatrywać w rabunkowej działalności człowieka. Najwięcej szkód wyrządzają wielkie tamy hamujące bieg wody oraz odwracanie nurtu rzek na potrzeby rolnictwa i przemysłu.

źródło: rp.pl

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1. powstała 2 lata temu praca: „Interannual and seasonal variation of the Huanghe (Yellow River) water discharge over the past 50 years...” (Wang et al. 2006) w streszczeniu zamieszcza m. in. takie zdania: “Global ENSO events, which directly affected the regional precipitation in the river basin, resulted in approximately 51% DECREASE [straty] in river water discharge to the sea.” (...)
“...large dams and reservoirs have shifted the seasonal distribution patterns of water discharge and water consumption and finally resulted in RAPIDLY INCREASING WATER CONSUMPTION.”
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W całej zresztą tej pracy nie ma ani słóweczka o ociepleniu klimatu!!! Wszystko w 100%-tach wyjaśnia ogromny przyrost konsumpcji, zwłaszcza rolniczej, zmieniających rozkład parowania + EN-SO !!!
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Globalne ocieplenie powoduje WZROST opadów wskutek większego parowania ze zbiorników wodnych, co przekłada się na WZROST opadów i WZROST poziomu wody w rzekach. Potwierdzają to np: ciepłe prądy oceaniczne niosące opady. Morał? Albo ubytek wody w rzekach jest spowodowany działalnoscią człowieka albo globalne ocieplenie nie istnieje...