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Fosfor na nawozy odzyskiwany z odpadów
wtorek 2014-05-13

Oryginalną koncepcję produkcji nawozów z surowca stanowiącego produkt uboczny oczyszczania ścieków opracowało i wdraża w praktyce konsorcjum pod kierownictwem naukowym prof. Henryka Góreckiego. Zespół chemików z Politechniki Wrocławskiej ma wsparcie inżynierów w Instytucie Nawozów Sztucznych w Puławach i specjalistów z zakresu chemii rolnej na Uniwersytecie Warmińsko-Mazurskim w Olsztynie.

"Rośliny potrzebują trzech głównych składników - azotu, fosforu i potasu. Z azotem nie ma problemu, jest w powietrzu. Z potasem też - jest na Białorusi, w Niemczech. Największy kłopot jest z fosforem, którego praktycznie nie ma, a zapasy się wyczerpują. A życia bez fosforu nie ma, bo jest on składnikiem DNA, białek. Problem polega na tym, żeby uratować jak najwięcej fosforu, który by się utraciło” – powiedział PAP kierownik naukowy projektu, prof. dr hab. inż. Henryk Górecki.

Problem z racjonalnym wykorzystaniem fosforu polega na tym, że z jednej strony brakuje go na potrzeby przemysłowe, między innymi właśnie do produkcji nawozów sztucznych. Z drugiej zaś, w postaci fosforanów, pojawia się on w procesie oczyszczania ścieków. I, jako odpad, jest tracony.

„Fosfor występuje w kościach, jest go też wiele w moczu ludzkim. Znajduje się w różnych odpadach przemysłu rolno-spożywczego, to jest olbrzymia masa. Nawet w zmywarkach do naczyń mamy sporo fosforu, ale w postaci, w jakiej nie jest do końca przyswajalny przez rośliny. Szukamy sposobu, żeby to zmienić” – tłumaczy prof. Górecki.

Kiedy roślinom brakuje fosforu, rosną wolniej, osiągając mniejsze rozmiary, a w konsekwencji stanowią mniej wartościową żywność. Chodzi zatem o to, aby odzyskać fosfor, który bezpowrotnie był tracony i produkować potrzebne w rolnictwie związki w ten sposób, żeby nie było to szkodliwe dla środowiska. Przy konwencjonalnym sposobie rozkładu, jak tłumaczy prof. Górecki, produkuje się olbrzymie ilości odpadu fosfogipsowego, który jest składowany m.in. się na terasie zalewowej Odry - rocznie od półtora do 2 mln ton.

"Nowe rozwiązanie polega na tym, żeby odzyskiwać fosfor zarówno z kości, jak również z popiołu ze spalania osadów ściekowych. Do tego celu wykorzystujemy pewną bakterię. Jest ona znana z tego, że towarzyszy u małych dzieci chorobie zębów - próchnicy. Te bakterie są wykorzystywane do zmiany właściwości surowców fosforowych. Inaczej mówiąc, bakteria wpływa na to, żeby rośliny mogły je przyswajać” – tłumaczy wrocławski profesor.

Projekt pt. „Odnawialne źródła fosforu - bazą surowcową nowej generacji nawozów” potrwa do października 2016 r. Konsorcjanci mają do dyspozycji ponad 4 miliony złotych z Narodowego Centrum Badań i Rozwoju. Pieniądze zostaną podzielone proporcjonalnie do zadań. Liderem projektu jest Politechnika Wrocławska. Współpracuje z nią dwóch wykonawców: Instytut Nawozów Sztucznych w Puławach i Katedra Systemów Rolniczych

Kierowniczką projektu jest dr inż. Agnieszka Saeid z Wydziału Chemicznego Politechniki Wrocławskiej. Uczelnia opracuje technologiczne warianty nawozów fosforowych tworzonych na bazie różnych surowców odnawialnych. Wykorzysta w tym celu popioły ze spalonych suszonych osadów z oczyszczalni ścieków oraz produkty powstałe z przetworzenia kości i ości. Wszystkie te surowce zawierają bowiem dużo fosforu. Będzie też przygotowywać do rejestracji produkty, które powstaną w wyniku projektu.

Instytut Nawozów Sztucznych w Puławach zweryfikuje koncepcje technologiczne przygotowane przez Politechnikę Wrocławską w skali półtechnicznej. Prace będzie nadzorował dr Andrzej Biskupski.

Jak poinformował na swoich stronach UWM, zespół z Katedry Systemów Rolniczych na Wydziale Kształtowania Środowiska i Rolnictwa będzie oceniać właściwości nawozów na uniwersyteckich polach w Bałcynach pod Ostródą. Do doświadczeń wykorzystana zostanie pszenica. Dr hab. Magdalena Jastrzębska wraz z zespołem zbadać cechy morfologiczne pszenicy, np. wysokość łodygi, długość kłosa, masę ziaren, jej odporność na wyleganie i zachwaszczenie, właściwości chemiczne, ilość i jakość resztek pozbiorowych. Naukowcy z Kortowa przebadają także glebę, na której pszenica urośnie.

Zgodnie z założeniami projektu, nawóz fosforowy uzyskany z osadów pościekowych powinien być tańszy od tradycyjnego nawozu, bo tylko wtedy wzbudzi zainteresowanie rynku. Absolutnym priorytetem jest bowiem dla całego zespołu wdrożenie nowej technologii do masowej produkcji.

"Skrzyknęliśmy się: chemicy, inżynierowie, którzy potrafią budować instalacje laboratoryjne i chemii rolnej – wszyscy chcemy ten projekt doprowadzić do wdrożenia na skalę przemysłową. Na razie przygotowujemy produkcję tylko w warunkach laboratoryjnych. Powstałe w reaktorach nawozy przygotowujemy do pierwszych badań na mikropoletkach. Wchodzimy w tę fazę projektu, w której w warunkach polowych sprawdzimy, czy nasz nawóz jest skuteczny dla rolnictwa. Jeśli nasza koncepcja się sprawdzi, wówczas Instytut Nawozów Sztucznych przeprowadzi testy w większej skali” – mówi prof. Górecki.

Instytut ma filię pod Wrocławiem. Obecnie eksperci produkują nawozy zawiesinowe w tamtejszych reaktorach. Reakcje przeprowadzane są też bezpośrednio w glebie – z wykorzystaniem produktów spalania osadów ściekowych ze spalarni w Olsztynie.

Prof. Górecki opracował i wdrożył wiele nowych technologii i produktów w przemyśle nawozowym, nieorganicznym, chemii gospodarczej oraz w rolnictwie. Od 40 lat prowadzi pracę naukową w Instytucie Technologii Nieorganicznej i Nawozów Mineralnych Politechniki Wrocławskiej. Jest ostrożny z przedwczesnym inwestowaniem w procedury patentowe.

"Patentowanie musi mieć swoje uzasadnienie ekonomiczne. Ważne jest też, by znalazł się przedsiębiorca, który będzie wdrażał wyniki naszych badań. Zakładamy komercjalizację, bo choć na świecie były już podobne próby laboratoryjne, to w Polsce dzięki sponsorowaniu badań przez NCBR, mamy tę przewagę, że projekt od razu i po raz pierwszy będzie prowadzony na dużą skalę"– podsumowuje prof. Górecki.


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